Consequences of an Additional Disruption Event - Equity Derivatives Provision

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2002 ISDA Equity Derivatives Definitions
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Resources About the Equity Derivatives Definitions | (full wikitext) | (nutshell wikitext)
Hot topics Synthetic Prime Brokerage Anatomy | The Triple Cocktail | Cancellation and Payment | Calculation Agent
TOC | 1 General Definitions | 2 Option Transactions | 3 Exercise of Options | 4 Forward Transactions | 5 Equity Swap Transactions | 6 Valuation | 7 Settlement | 8 Cash Settlement | 9 Physical Settlement | 10 Dividends | 11 Adjustments and Modifications | 12 Extraordinary Events · 12.8 Cancellation Amount · 12.9 Additional Disruption Events · 12.9 List of ADEs · 12.9(b) Consequences of ADEs | 13 Miscellaneous

Index: Click to expand:

Section 12.9(b) in a Nutshell
Use at your own risk, campers!

In a super nutshell:

Event Section What happens? At what price?
Change in Law or Insolvency Filing 12.9(b)(i) Either party gives 2 Scheduled Trading Days’ notice to terminate Cancellation Amount
Hedging Disruption 12.9(b)(iii) The Hedging Party may terminate on 2 Scheduled Trading Days’ notice Cancellation Amount
Increased Cost of Hedging 12.9(b)(iv) Hedging Party notifies a Price Adjustment. Non-Hedging Party may
(i) agree to amend Transaction;
(ii) pay the Price Adjustment outright; or
(iii) terminate.
If NHP has done none within 2 Scheduled Trading Days the Hedging Party can terminate.
Cancellation Amount
Loss of Stock Borrow 12.9(b)(iv) The Hedging Party notifies the LOSB, the Non-Hedging Party has two Scheduled Trading Days to come up with a stock loan at a rate no higher than the Maximum Stock Loan Rate, failing which the Hedging Party may terminate Cancellation Amount
Increased Cost of Stock Borrow 12.9(b)(iv) The Hedging Party notifies the ICOSB and a proposed Price Adjustment. Non-Hedging Party has two Scheduled Trading Days to
(i) agree to amend Transaction;
(ii) pay the Price Adjustment outright; or
(iii) terminate on the second Scheduled Trading Day.
Cancellation Amount

In a normal nutshell:

12.9(b) For the purpose of determining the consequence of an Additional Disruption Event:
12.9(b)(i) If Change in Law or Insolvency Filing applies and one happens, either party may terminate the Transaction two Scheduled Trading Days’ notice (or less, if required under Change in Law), and the Determining Party will determine the Cancellation Amount.
12.9(b)(ii) If “Failure to Deliver” applies, then a Failure to Deliver will not be an Event of Default but the “Delivering Party” must:
(A) notify the “Receiving Party” that the Failure to Deliver has occurred within one Clearance System Business Day of the Exercise Date (for Option Transactions) and at least one Settlement Cycle prior to the Settlement Date (for Forward Transactions and Equity Swap Transactions; and
(B) deliver to the Receiving Party on the Settlement Date the Shares that it can deliver on such date;
and the Receiving Party’s corresponding payment or delivery obligation to the Delivering Party will be proportionately reduced.
Thereafter:
(I) For European Options and Forward Transactions: The Receiving Party may terminate the remaining Transaction effective immediately by notice to the Delivering Party and must (as Determining Party) determine the related Cancellation Amount;
(II) For American Options and Bermuda Options: The Receiving Party may terminate that part of the Transaction comprising the exercised but not settled Options effective immediately by notice to the Delivering Party and must (as Determining Party) determine the related Cancellation Amount;
(III) For Equity Swap Transactions: The Receiving Party may terminate that part of the Transaction consisting of the unsettled deliveries effective immediately by notice to the Delivering Party and must (as Determining Party) determine the Cancellation Amount;
(IV) For unexercised American Options and Bermuda Options to which Multiple Exercise applies, and for Equity Swap Transactions where a Settlement Date has not occurred: The Receiving Party may elect within one Settlement Cycle of the affected Settlement Date to terminate the remainder of the Transaction upon two Scheduled Trading Days’ notice, and must (as Determining Party) determine the Cancellation Amount.
12.9(b)(iii) If “Hedging Disruption” applies and it happens, the Hedging Party may terminate the Transaction on 2 Scheduled Trading Days’ notice, and the Determining Party will determine the Cancellation Amount payable under the Transaction.
12.9(b)(iv) If “Loss of Stock Borrow” applies, then if the Hedging Party notifies the Non-Hedging Party of a Loss of Stock Borrow, the Non-Hedging Party may, within 2 Scheduled Trading Days of notice, lend the Hedging Party the necessary Shares at a rate no greater than the Maximum Stock Loan Rate. If it does not, the Hedging Party may terminate the Transaction on notice and the Determining Party will determine the Cancellation Amount.
12.9(b)(v) If “Increased Cost of Stock Borrow” applies, the Hedging Party may tell the Non-Hedging Party that an Increased Cost of Stock Borrow has happened and that it will make a Price Adjustment to the Transaction.
Within 2 Scheduled Trading Days of that notice the Non-Hedging Party must:
(A) amend the Transaction to make the Price Adjustment,
(B) pay the Hedging Party the Price Adjustment or
(C) terminate the Transaction as of that second Scheduled Trading Day.
Within this period, the Non-Hedging Party may lend the Hedging Party, the necessary Hedging Shares at no more than the Initial Stock Loan Rate.
Absent such an election the Hedging Party may terminate the Transaction. On any termination of the Transaction, the Determining Party will determine the Cancellation Amount.
12.9(b)(vi) If “Increased Cost of Hedging” applies and it occurs, the Hedging Party will so notify the Non-Hedging Party and that it will make a Price Adjustment. Within 2 Scheduled Trading Days the Non-Hedging Party must elect to the Hedging Party either to:
(A) amend the Transaction to cater for the Price Adjustment,
(B) pay the Hedging Party the Price Adjustment or
(C) terminate the Transaction as of that second Scheduled Trading Day. Absent such an election the Hedging Party may terminate the Transaction. On any termination of the Transaction, the Determining Party will determine the Cancellation Amount.
12.9(b)(vii) If both “Hedging Disruption” and “Loss of Stock Borrow” apply and an event happens that could be either, it will be treated as a Loss of Stock Borrow and not a Hedging Disruption.
12.9(b)(viii) Any Shares the Non-Hedging Party or Lending Party provides relating to a Loss of Stock Borrow or Increased Cost of Stock Borrow must be in freely tradable book-entry form and documented under suitable stock lending documentation acceptable to the Hedging Party.
12.9(b)(ix) Any Cancellation Amount must be paid in the Transaction settlement currency no later than three Currency Business Days after the Determining Party’s notice of its determination is effective.

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Full text of Section 12.9(b)

12.9(b) For the purpose of determining the consequence of an Additional Disruption Event:
12.9(b)(i) If “Change in Law” or “Insolvency Filing” is specified in the related Confirmation to be applicable to a Transaction, then upon the occurrence of such an event either party may elect to terminate the Transaction upon at least two Scheduled Trading Days’ notice to the other party specifying the date of such termination (or such lesser notice as may be required to comply with the Change in Law), in which event the Transaction will terminate and the Determining Party will determine the Cancellation Amount payable by one party to the other.
12.9(b)(ii) If “Failure to Deliver” is specified in the related Confirmation to be applicable to a Transaction, then such event shall not constitute an Event of Default under the ISDA Master Agreement, but upon the occurrence of such an event, the party required to deliver the relevant Shares (the “Delivering Party”) shall (A) give the other party (the “Receiving Party”) notice that a Failure to Deliver has occurred within one Clearance System Business Day of the relevant Exercise Date in the case of an Option Transaction and at least one Settlement Cycle prior to the Settlement Date in the case of a Forward Transaction or Equity Swap Transaction and (B) deliver on the Settlement Date to the Receiving Party such number of Shares that it can deliver on such date. The Receiving Party’s obligation to make any corresponding payment or delivery to the Delivering Party shall be reduced in proportion to the number of Shares it receives from the Delivering Party. In respect of a European Option or a Forward Transaction, the Receiving Party may then elect to terminate the Transaction by giving notice to the Delivering Party and the Transaction will terminate on the date that such notice is effective. The Receiving Party (who shall be the Determining Party) shall determine the Cancellation Amount payable in relation to such terminated Transaction (after consideration of any partial delivery). In respect of an American Option or a Bermuda Option, the Receiving Party may then elect to terminate that part of the Transaction consisting of the exercised Options by giving notice to the Delivering Party. On the date that such notice is effective, a Transaction consisting of the exercised Options only shall be terminated and the Receiving Party (who shall be the Determining Party) shall determine the Cancellation Amount payable in relation to such terminated Transaction (after consideration of any partial delivery). In respect of an Equity Swap Transaction, the Receiving Party may then elect to terminate that part of the Transaction consisting of the Number of Shares to be Delivered or Number of Baskets to be Delivered, as the case may be, on that Settlement Date by giving notice to the Delivering Party. On the date that such notice is effective, a Transaction consisting of the Number of Shares to be Delivered or Number of Baskets to be Delivered, as the case may be, on that Settlement Date only shall be deemed to have been terminated on such Settlement Date and the Receiving Party (who shall be the Determining Party) shall determine the Cancellation Amount payable in relation to such terminated Transaction (after consideration of any partial delivery). In respect of an American Option or a Bermuda Option, in each case to which Multiple Exercise is applicable and upon which less than all Options have been exercised or deemed exercised on the relevant Exercise Date, or in respect of an Equity Swap Transaction in relation to which one or more Settlement Dates have not occurred, the Receiving Party may elect within one Settlement Cycle of the Settlement Date on which the Transaction was partially terminated to terminate the remaining Transaction upon two Scheduled Trading Days’ notice to the Delivering Party, in which event the Transaction shall terminate on the date that such notice is effective and the Receiving Party (who shall be the Determining Party) shall determine the Cancellation Amount payable in relation to such terminated Transaction.
12.9(b)(iii) If “Hedging Disruption” is specified in the related Confirmation to be applicable to a Transaction, then upon the occurrence of such an event the Hedging Party may elect, while the Hedging Disruption is continuing, to terminate the Transaction, upon at least two Scheduled Trading Days’ notice to the Non-Hedging Party specifying the date of such termination, in which event the Determining Party will determine the Cancellation Amount payable by one party to the other.
12.9(b)(iv) If “Loss of Stock Borrow” is specified in the related Confirmation to be applicable to a Transaction, then upon the occurrence of such an event the Hedging Party may give notice that a Loss of Stock Borrow has occurred to the Non-Hedging Party, who may (A) lend the Hedging Party, subject to the conditions below, Shares in an amount equal to the Hedging Shares at a rate equal to or less than the Maximum Stock Loan Rate or (B) refer the Hedging Party to a Lending Party that will lend the Hedging Party Shares in an amount equal to the Hedging Shares at a rate equal to or less than the Maximum Stock Loan Rate, in each case within two Scheduled Trading Days of receipt of the notice of Loss of Stock Borrow. If neither the Non-Hedging Party nor the Lending Party lends Shares in the amount of the Hedging Shares or a satisfactory Lending Party is not identified within this period, the Hedging Party may give notice that it elects to terminate the Transaction, specifying the date of such termination, which may be the same day that the notice of termination is effective. The Determining Party will then determine the Cancellation Amount payable by one party to the other.
12.9(b)(v) If “Increased Cost of Stock Borrow” is specified in the related Confirmation to be applicable to a Transaction, then upon the occurrence of such an event the Hedging Party will give prompt notice to the Non-Hedging Party that an Increased Cost of Stock Borrow has occurred and that a Price Adjustment will be made to the Transaction. The Non-Hedging Party shall, within two Scheduled Trading Days of receipt of the notice of Increased Cost of Stock Borrow and corresponding Price Adjustment, notify the Hedging Party that it elects to (A) agree to amend the relevant Transaction to take into account the Price Adjustment, (B) pay the Hedging Party an amount determined by the Calculation Agent that corresponds to the Price Adjustment or (C) terminate the Transaction as of that second Scheduled Trading Day. If such notice is not given by the end of that second Scheduled Trading Day, then the Hedging Party may give notice that it elects to terminate the Transaction, specifying the date of such termination, which may be the same day that the notice of termination is effective. If either party elects to terminate the Transaction, the Determining Party will determine the Cancellation Amount payable by one party to the other. Within this period, the Non-Hedging Party may, in order to avoid a Price Adjustment or termination with respect to the Transaction, (X) lend the Hedging Party, subject to the conditions below, Shares in an amount equal to the Hedging Shares at a rate equal to or less than the Initial Stock Loan Rate or (Y) refer the Hedging Party to a Lending Party that lends the Hedging Party Shares in an amount equal to the Hedging Shares at a rate equal to or less than the Initial Stock Loan Rate.
12.9(b)(vi) If “Increased Cost of Hedging” is specified in the related Confirmation to be applicable to a Transaction, then upon the occurrence of such an event the Hedging Party will give prompt notice to the Non-Hedging Party that such increased costs have been incurred and that a Price Adjustment will be made to the Transaction. The Non-Hedging Party shall, within two Scheduled Trading Days of receipt of the notice of Increased Cost of Hedging and corresponding Price Adjustment, notify the Hedging Party that it elects to (A) agree to amend the relevant Transaction to take into account the Price Adjustment, (B) pay the Hedging Party an amount determined by the Calculation Agent that corresponds to the Price Adjustment or (C) terminate the Transaction as of that second Scheduled Trading Day. If such notice is not given by the end of that second Scheduled Trading Day, then the Hedging Party may give notice that it elects to terminate the Transaction, specifying the date of such termination, which may be the same day that the notice of termination is effective. If either party elects to terminate the Transaction, the Determining Party will determine the Cancellation Amount payable by one party to the other.
12.9(b)(vii) If both “Hedging Disruption” and “Loss of Stock Borrow” are specified to be applicable to a Transaction and an event or circumstance that would otherwise constitute or give rise to a Hedging Disruption also constitutes a Loss of Stock Borrow, it will be treated as a Loss of Stock Borrow and will not constitute a Hedging Disruption.
12.9(b)(viii) Any Shares provided by the Non-Hedging Party or the Lending Party, as the case may be, in respect of a Loss of Stock Borrow or Increased Cost of Stock Borrow shall be in book-entry form and freely tradable without any restrictions under relevant law and the lending of such Shares shall be documented under documentation acceptable to the Hedging Party.
12.9(b)(ix) Any Cancellation Amount payable by one party to the other shall be paid by the party to pay such amount not later than three Currency Business Days following the date that notice of the determination by the Determining Party of such amount (denominated in the currency for settlement of the Transaction as determined by the Determining Party) and the party to pay such amount is effective, which notice shall be provided promptly following such determination.

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12.9(b) Consequences of an Additional Disruption Event

12.9(b)(i) Consequences of Change in Law or Insolvency Filing
12.9(b)(ii) Consequences of Failure to Deliver
12.9(b)(iii) Consequences of Hedging Disruption
12.9(b)(iv) Consequences of Loss of Stock Borrow
12.9(b)(v) Consequences of Increased Cost of Stock Borrow
12.9(b)(vi) Consequences of Increased Cost of Hedging
12.9(b)(vii) Consequences of Hedging Disruption and Loss of Stock Borrow
12.9(b)(viii) Shares provided by the Non-Hedging Party
12.9(b)(ix) Cancellation Amount payable by one party to the other

The remedies and consequences of invoking an Additional Disruption Event under Section 12.9(a).
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Summary

Additional Disruption Events dans une Nutshell

The important Additional Disruption Events are the Triple Cocktail: Change in Law, Hedging Disruption and Increased Cost of Hedging. They have marginally different play-out rights:

Okay, okay, I hear you — LOSB and ICOSB are important too. For those:

Insolvency Filing and Failure to Deliver ... well — are they even applied in your confirm?
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General discussion

Consequences of Change in Law or Insolvency Filing under Section 12.9(b)(i)

Your counterparties — or at any rate, their legal departments — may enjoy the intellectual challenge of jousting over the precise number of days’ notice one must give before decreeing and acting upon a Change in Law or Insolvency Filing. The practical reality here is that a sensible broker will be in touch with affected clients and will manage out of such a position by some kind of consent without reaching for a copy of the agreement, and a non-sensible broker won’t have clients for very long, but that is not how legal eagles are conditioned to think.

Consequences of Failure to Deliver under Section 12.9(b)(ii)

This is for physical settlement only. It is a beast of a definition, even when nutshelled, but relevant only if physical settlement is your bag. If you cash settle your equity swaps — and in synthetic prime brokerage, that’s kinda the point, you know — you can keep on truckin’. For you weirdoes who are physically settling a synthetic contract, okay — what looks to be happening here[1] is that it is replicating a buy-in mechanic, only in a left-handed way, in that the onus is on the failing Delivering Party to notify that there has been a failure.

This seems odd to us: the buy-in mechanic is a neat self-help arrangement whereby if you don’t deliver what you are meant to, to me, when due, then I can go get it elsewhere in the market, cancel your delivery to me, and charge you the difference. This puts control in the hands of the innocent party — who may (per market convention) leave it a few days before actually exercising the buy-in, and even then only do it if it is part of a settlement chain, or otherwise it has direct onward obligations to settle the same securities to someone else.

The Consequences of Failure to Deliver, by contrast, depends on the Delivering Party announcing a failure (odd, seeing as the Receiving Party is perfectly well placed to look in its account on the Settlement Date to see if there has been a failure) and then calculating some Cancellation Amount with respect to the portion of the delivery that has failed.

Compare and contrast with a Buy-in following a Failure by either Party to deliver under the 2010 GMSLA.

Consequences of Hedging Disruption under Section 12.9(b)(iii)

You may see a rider to this clause along the following lines:

“Where reasonably practical, the Hedging Party must elect to terminate only the part of the Transaction with the Number of Shares corresponding to the Hedge Position that the Hedging Disruption relates to, and the Cancellation Amount is then determined over only the terminated part of the Transaction”.

See also Hedging Disruption, the event itself.

Consequences of Loss of Stock Borrow under Section 12.9(b)(iv)

See our article on Loss of Stock Borrow which discussed the event, and its consequences in a single, joined up, safe space.

Consequences of Increased Cost of Stock Borrow under Section 12.9(b)(v)

See our article on Increased Cost of Stock Borrow which discussed the event, and its consequences holistically, like.

Consequences of Increased cost of Hedging under Section 12.9(b)(vi)

Consequences of Hedging Disruption and Loss of Stock Borrow under 12.9(b)(vii)

If the same event could be a Hedging Disruption or a Loss of Stock Borrow, it will be treated as a Loss of Stock Borrow. The remedies for that are marginally less stentorian.
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See also

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References

  1. Looks that way in that it is late on a Friday afternoon, the sun is shining and the JC’s vital forces are at an unusually low ebb.