Representations - ISDA Provision

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2002 ISDA Master Agreement
A Jolly Contrarian owner’s manual

Section 3 in a Nutshell
Use at your own risk, campers!

3. Representations

Each party makes the representations below (with Section 3(g) representations only if specified in the Schedule) and repeats them on the date it enters into each Transaction and, for Section 3(f) representations, at all times until they terminate this Agreement). Any “Additional Representations” will be made and repeated as specified.
3(a) Basic Representations

3(a)(i) Status. It is duly organised and validly existing under the laws of its jurisdiction and is, where relevant, in good standing;
3(a)(ii) Powers. It has the power to execute, deliver and perform this Agreement and any Credit Support Document to which it is a party and has done everything needed to do so;
3(a)(iii) No Violation or Conflict. Its execution, delivery and performance does not breach law, its constitutional documents, or any court or government order or contractual restriction affecting it or its assets;
3(a)(iv) Consents. It has all regulatory approvals needed to enter and perform this Agreement and any Credit Support Document to which it is a party and they remain unconditional and in full force; and
3(a)(v) Obligations Binding. Its obligations under this Agreement and any Credit Support Document to which it is a party are its legal, valid and binding obligations, enforceable in accordance with their terms (subject to general laws affecting creditors’ rights and equitable principles).

3(b) Absence of Certain Events. No Event of Default or Potential Event of Default or, to its knowledge, Termination Event is in existence for that party or would happen if it entered or performed this Agreement or any Credit Support Document.
3(c) Absence of Litigation. There is no pending or threatened litigation against it, any Credit Support Providers or any Specified Entities before any court or government agency that could affect the legality, enforceability or its ability to perform this Agreement or any Credit Support Document.
3(d) Accuracy of Specified Information. The Specified Information designated as being subject to this Section 3(d) representation is, as at its stated date, materially accurate and complete.
3(e) Payer Tax Representation. Each of its Payer Tax Representations specified in the Schedule is true.
3(f) Payee Tax Representation. Each Payee Tax Representation it has made to which this Section 3(f) applies (as specified in the Schedule) is true.
3(g) No Agency. It is a principal and not an agent under this Agreement.
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Section 3 in full

3. Representations
Each party makes the representations contained in Sections 3(a), 3(b), 3(c), 3(d), 3(e) and 3(f) and, if specified in the Schedule as applying, 3(g) to the other party (which representations will be deemed to be repeated by each party on each date on which a Transaction is entered into and, in the case of the representations in Section 3(f), at all times until the termination of this Agreement). If any “Additional Representation” is specified in the Schedule or any Confirmation as applying, the party or parties specified for such Additional Representation will make and, if applicable, be deemed to repeat such Additional Representation at the time or times specified for such Additional Representation.
3(a) Basic Representations.

3(a)(i) Status. It is duly organised and validly existing under the laws of the jurisdiction of its organisation or incorporation and, if relevant under such laws, in good standing;
3(a)(ii) Powers. It has the power to execute this Agreement and any other documentation relating to this Agreement to which it is a party, to deliver this Agreement and any other documentation relating to this Agreement that it is required by this Agreement to deliver and to perform its obligations under this Agreement and any obligations it has under any Credit Support Document to which it is a party and has taken all necessary action to authorise such execution, delivery and performance;
3(a)(iii) No Violation or Conflict. Such execution, delivery and performance do not violate or conflict with any law applicable to it, any provision of its constitutional documents, any order or judgment of any court or other agency of government applicable to it or any of its assets or any contractual restriction binding on or affecting it or any of its assets;
3(a)(iv) Consents. All governmental and other consents that are required to have been obtained by it with respect to this Agreement or any Credit Support Document to which it is a party have been obtained and are in full force and effect and all conditions of any such consents have been complied with; and
3(a)(v) Obligations Binding. Its obligations under this Agreement and any Credit Support Document to which it is a party constitute its legal, valid and binding obligations, enforceable in accordance with their respective terms (subject to applicable bankruptcy, reorganisation, insolvency, moratorium or similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally and subject, as to enforceability, to equitable principles of general application (regardless of whether enforcement is sought in a proceeding in equity or at law)).

3(b) Absence of Certain Events. No Event of Default or Potential Event of Default or, to its knowledge, Termination Event with respect to it has occurred and is continuing and no such event or circumstance would occur as a result of its entering into or performing its obligations under this Agreement or any Credit Support Document to which it is a party.
3(c) Absence of Litigation. There is not pending or, to its knowledge, threatened against it, any of its Credit Support Providers or any of its applicable Specified Entities any action, suit or proceeding at law or in equity or before any court, tribunal, governmental body, agency or official or any arbitrator that is likely to affect the legality, validity or enforceability against it of this Agreement or any Credit Support Document to which it is a party or its ability to perform its obligations under this Agreement or such Credit Support Document.
3(d) Accuracy of Specified Information. All applicable information that is furnished in writing by or on behalf of it to the other party and is identified for the purpose of this Section 3(d) in the Schedule is, as of the date of the information, true, accurate and complete in every material respect.
3(e) Payer Tax Representation. Each representation specified in the Schedule as being made by it for the purpose of this Section 3(e) is accurate and true.
3(f) Payee Tax Representations. Each representation specified in the Schedule as being made by it for the purpose of this Section 3(f) is accurate and true.
3(g) No Agency. It is entering into this Agreement, including each Transaction, as principal and not as agent of any person or entity.
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Related agreements and comparisons

Related Agreements
Click here for the text of Section 3 in the 1992 ISDA
Comparisons
Template:Isdadiff 3

Resources and navigation

Resources Wikitext | Nutshell wikitext | 1992 ISDA wikitext | 2002 vs 1992 Showdown | 2006 ISDA Definitions | 2008 ISDA | JC’s ISDA code project
Navigation Preamble | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14
Events of Default: 5(a)(i) Failure to Pay or Deliver5(a)(ii) Breach of Agreement5(a)(iii) Credit Support Default5(a)(iv) Misrepresentation5(a)(v) Default Under Specified Transaction5(a)(vi) Cross Default5(a)(vii) Bankruptcy5(a)(viii) Merger without Assumption
Termination Events: 5(b)(i) Illegality5(b)(ii) Force Majeure Event5(b)(iii) Tax Event5(b)(iv) Tax Event Upon Merger5(b)(v) Credit Event Upon Merger5(b)(vi) Additional Termination Event

Index — Click ᐅ to expand:

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Content and comparisons

3 Representations

3(a) Basic Representations
3(b) Absence of certain events
3(c) Absence of litigation
3(d) Accuracy of Specified Information
3(e) Payer Tax Representations
3(f) Payee Tax Representations
3(g) No Agency (2002 ISDA only)

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Summary

Misrepresentation is an Event of Default

A breach of any of these Representations when made (or deemed repeated) (except a Payer or Payee Tax Representation, but including any Additional Representation is an Event of Default.

Additional Representations as Additional Termination Events

In the case of Additional Representations this can be somewhat drastic, especially if your Additional Representation is Transaction-specific (for example India, China and Taiwan investor status reps for equity derivatives), and it would seem churlish to close out a whole ISDA Master Agreement on their account.

Then again, show me a swap dealer who would detonate an entire swap trading relationship with a solvent counterparty and I’ll show you a moron — but, as we know, opposing legal eagles operate on the presumption that everyone else is a moron and thus tend to be immune to such grand rhetorical flourishes, and regard such appeals to basic common sense as precisely such flourishes, so don’t expect that argument to carry the day, however practically true it may be.

Instead, expect to encounter leagues of agonising drafting, but there are easier roads to travel. Try:

These representations will be Additional Representations, except that where they prove to be materially incorrect or misleading when made or repeated it will not be an Event of Default but an Additional Termination Event, where the Transactions in question are the Affected Transactions and the misrepresenting party is the sole Affected Party.

On representations and warranties generally

Representations

A representation is a statement of present or historical fact made by one person to another outside the bounds of a contract that induces that other person to enter a contract. By its nature, a representation is therefore not a term of the contract itself — it cannot be; it was made before the contract came about; it is an egg to the contract’s chicken — although that won’t stop Legal riddling your contract with representations and, usually, co-branding them as warranties for good measure. A false representation may entitle an innocent to claim under the Misrepresentation Act 1967 and rescind its contract, or claim damages for negligent misstatement in tort.

Being founded on the tortious action on negligent misstatement, one of the ingredients of an actionable misrepresentation is that the representer somehow fell short of her duty of care: the simple fact that the representation was false might not be not enough if she can’t cannot reasonably have known it was false. This feels a more significant distinction than it is: tort governs situations where the parties, being randoms, have not had the opportunity to document their duties to one another, so the law steps in to help. Where they have, through the medium of contract, the law says, “you don’t need my clever appeals to the judgment of prudent people on public transport in south London to work out how you must treat each other, because you have worked it out for yourselves.”

Where the parties have written down their respective duties, but they still appeal to a tortious standard — which is what they are doing by writing “representations” into a contract — they are admitting to confusion between the laws of tort and contract. Here the fellow on the Clapham omnibus would surely say that the abstract duty of care maps exactly on to what the parties have voluntarily agreed. Why would it be any different? To be “negligent” under a contract is surely to breach it; no more and no less.[1]

Warranties

A warranty is a statement of a present or historical fact made as a term of a contract. If a warrantor breaches its warranty the injured party might claim damages for the breach of contract and sue for damages, but cannot rescind it altogether. To set aside the contract as if it never happened — to void it, ab initio — you would need to prove a misrepresentation from someone before the contract, that induced you to enter it.

Since a warranty is creature of contract, one’s liability for its failure is absolute: if a warranty fails, you’re in the schtook: it is no defence that you could not reasonably have known that the matters warranted were not true, or that some mendacious interloper (other than the other party to the contract) has intervened to defeat your best intentions unless that kind of conditionality is written into the contract. This is the appeal of a written contract: the parties can write down with infinite, tedious precision, what they mean to say, and what they say they mean, one-hundred per cent.

It also points up the logical befuddlement behind the idea of writing representations into a contract.

How material is “material”?

What is a “material” respect? This is key, since some of the general representations (Consents, for example) are quite wide, and in this world of regulatory perma-change, the risk that one is, for example, outside technical compliance with a new regulation as it is implemented, notwithstanding a competent regulator’s informal indication that no action will be taken if you get your skates on and remediate quickly — it happened for MiFID II as thousands of financial firms raced headlong at the brick wall of that 3 January 2017 implementation date[2] but it seems reasonable to suppose that materially must somehow impact your ability to carry out your obligations under a Transaction or the ISDA Master Agreement[3].
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General discussion

Additional Representations

The representations set out in Section 3 are, of course, the boring ones. The Additional Representations that are pulled in here and have the same effect on the Events of Default as do these boring ones — over which the parties will tortuously argue during the negotiation process, are lot more interesting — literary, really — reflecting as they do the dark paranoia lurking deep in the heart of your favourite credit officer.

And what of this idea that one not only represents and warrants as of the moment one inks the paper, but also is deemed to repeat itself an the execution of each trade, on any day, or whenever a butterfly flaps its wings on Fitzcarraldo’s steamer[4]? Do we think it works? Do we? Given how[5] practically useless even explicit representations are, does it really matter?

And, having given it, how are you supposed to stop a continuing representation once it has marched off into the unknowable future, like one of those conjured brooms from the Sorcerer’s Apprentice? If you don’t stop it, what then? This may seem fanciful to you, but what are buyside lawyers if not creatures of unlimited, gruesome imagination? Are their dreams not full with flights of just this sort of fancy? Rest assured that, as you do, they will be chewing their nails to the quick in insomniac fever about this precise contingency.

For which reason — it being a faintly pointless representation in the first place and everything — it might be best just to concede this point when it arises, as inevitably it will.
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For details freaks

Representations by investment managers and agents

There are those credit officers who will ask for representations from people who are not, strictly speaking, parties to the contract at all, even though they have a tremendous bearing on how it plays out. These are the investment managersinvestment advisors and hedge fund managers who act as agents on behalf of docile espievie funds in whom their investors buy shares.

You might, for example, want your manager to represent that it is a Qualified Professional Asset Manager able to represent the retirement aspirations of teachers in the Wisconsin Education board or some such thing. Such a QPAM’s declarations can’t really be Additional Representations per se, since the investment manager isn’t Party B at all, but if these are given in writing, then can be documents for delivery to which Section 3(d) can be applied. But if losing QPAM status is an Additional Termination Event for Affected Transactions, then query what value there is in having one more cudgel to beat a poor, innocent espievie that didn’t do anything wrong in the first place.
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See also

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References

  1. This is why the idea of “gross negligence” is all the more abstruse.
  2. Swiss stay too, for that matter.
  3. Other than the representation itself, of course. That would be meta, and actually a bit of a strange loop.
  4. Or whatever. WHATEVER DUDE.
  5. WARNING: CONTRARIAN VIEW COMING UP.